如何写报告(上)

原来在LAWS的时候,经常要出些报告给香港,刚开头的时候老是被上司要求修改,一份报告没几页纸,改却要改个七八遍左右,很伤自尊。上司经常训导我的是:“报告是写给别人看的,目的是让人看明白,知道你意图,而不是你英语文才的展示……”

等到我也开始收下属交来的报告时,才发现此乃金玉良言。

一份漂亮的报告,和一篇精彩的小说不同,报告要一开始就让你知道作者的意图,而小说,精彩总是在后头!

为了写好报告,我曾在网上搜索些教人写报告的文章,以下就是其中一篇,今天翻出来翻译了一下,一来练习一下久未温习的英语,另一方面,看可否给还在写报告的朋友们一点启发:)

今天只翻译了一半,里面有些别扭的地方,望厉害的朋友赐教。我也会去论坛商议下如何翻译得更准确些。

英文以及翻译稿如下:

How to Write a Report 如何写报告

What is a Report
什么是报告

A report is a document which defines a subject or problem, and gathers relevant information and facts in order to present them as completely and accurately as possible. A report may include analysis, judgement, conclusions and recommendations.

报告是为一个主题或问题下定义,收集相关资料和事实,以便尽量做到完整和精确的表达。一份报告应该包括分析,判断,结论和建议。

A report therefore needs to be:
因此,一份报告应该要:

Brief 简洁
Understandable 易懂
Precise 准确
Logically structured 逻辑性强
Descriptive 描述性强
Aimed at the reader 针对性强

Particularly useful for informing, explaining and persuading. 用于说明、阐释、说服。

Before Writing the Report 写报告之前

It is important to consider WHO you are writing the report for, and why.
要知道报告要写给谁看,为什么要写这份报告。

Key questions to ask yourself:
问自己几个关键的问题:

Who wants the report?
谁要这份报告?
Why do they want it?
他们为什么要这份报告?
What are they going to do with it?
他们要用这份报告做什么?
What do they want it to cover?
他们希望这份报告包括些什么?
What will the report not cover? i.e. disclaimer.
这份报告应该不包括些什么?例如:反对(意见?免责声明.
What will happen as a result of the report?
写这份报告会产生什么结果?
A report should have a clear objective, i.e. what you are trying to achieve.
一份报告一定要明确目的,例如,你所争取的目标是什么?

          A clear objective = a clear focus = easier to write.
          明确的目的=清晰地集中于一点一个清晰的重点=容易地落笔

Planning 计划

It is important to start off by brainstorming what you have been asked to do.
开始之前最好是用头脑风暴的方式去问问你自己这份报告的要求。

Who wants the report?
谁要这份报告?
Write down the purpose of the report in the middle of a piece of A4 paper.
将报告的目的写在一张A4纸的中间。
Write down the key ideas/phrases that link to the purpose of the report.
将一些主要的观点/词组连接在目的旁边。
Group pieces of information under the key ideas connecting them by links.
用连接线将相关的资料集中在关键词之下。

Review the plan, adding or deleting points where necessary.
回顾一下计划,看看有没有必要做一些增减
Check that you have done what the task requires.
检查你有没有注明所有的要求。

Look for a simple structure, and order the key ideas. These will each make up a chapter of your report.
找一个简单的结构方式,然后整理一下你的主要观点。这样就能建立起你报告的章节了。

Research 搜索

Check existing knowledge, i.e. what you know already, and what you need to find out.
查一下已知信息,如什么是你已经知道的,什么是你需要找的。
Record the research methods used. 
记下用过的研究方式。(?)
Record the sources used. 
记下用过的资源。
Make notes from the sources, and make sure you reference sources as you go along, as this saves time and difficulties later on.
给资料注上标记, 在工作进行的过程中,保证那些资料就在你身边,这样能节省你的时间,并且减少之后查找的难度。
Order your notes and group together points based on your original plan.
根据你之前的计划整理你的笔记,将观点放在一起。
Check that you have done what the task requires.
检查一下你是否完成了所有的任务和要求。
 

Writing the Report – Structure 写报告——结构

Title page – Highlights the central theme of the report, and includes the title, author’s name, date, and name of the person or organisation who commissioned the report (if necessary).

标题页-将报告的主题放在显著的位置,包括标题、作者姓名、日期以及报告委托方姓名或委托机构名称(必要情况下)。

Acknowledgements (optional) – Conveys thanks to those who have helped the author in the preparation of the report.
声明(可选的)- 表达对为该报告提供多帮助的人的感谢。

Contents – Essential if the report exceeds three pages. Lists the main sections and sub-sections of the report in sequence. The headings should be identical to those used in the report, together with the page number. A list of illustrations and appendices should be detailed. It is better to complete this section after writing the report. e.g.
Section Title Page 
内容 –
   
1 Introduction 1 
1 简介 1
 1.1 Aims and objectives 1 
 1.1 目标
 1.2 Review of literature 2 
 1.2 文献资料 2
   
2 Methodology 3
2 方法论 3

etc
等等

List of Illustrations
图表列表  
Figure 1 Graph showing age of person 4 etc
图表 1 图示4人的年龄 等

Appendices
附录

Appendix A   Title
附录A 标题
Appendix B (sometimes numbered with Roman numerals instead) etc
附录B(有时以罗马数字代替字母)等等

Summary (optional, and sometimes called an Executive Summary) – This is useful if the report is long, and provides the reader with a brief outline of the report. This can act as an introduction to the subject of the full report, a guide as to whether the report is of interest, and as a time saver to a busy reader. The summary should be no more than a page in length.
摘要(可选,有时称经营综合摘要) – 如果报告很长,摘要就有用了,它可以提供给读者一个简洁的报告提纲,这个提纲可以作为整篇报告的一个介绍,让读者知道内容是否会引起他们的兴趣(也可翻译成:这个提纲是一个关于报告的介绍,也是一个判断内容是否有趣的窗口),还能为那些忙碌的读者提供一个节约时间的方法。摘要最好不要超过一张纸的长度。

Paragraph one should define the report’s purpose, paragraph two should outline what was done and how, paragraph three should report on the main findings, paragraph four should identify the main conclusion, and the final paragraph should outline the main recommendations.
第一部分应该阐释报告的目的,第二部分要罗列已经完成的以及怎样完成的工作,第三部分要说明主要的发现,第四部分应该说明主要结论,最后一部分要概括主要的建议和意见。

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