如何写报告(下)

2天前的翻译稿已经修改过了,保留了最初不当的地方,当作自己标注的笔记吧.今天把它翻译完. 不过很显然,这不是一篇教人怎样写纯商务用报告的文章,后面还涉及到一些学术论文的写法和格式,但是为了不半途而废,我就还是把它全部翻译出来吧!

这里为如何写报告(下)的英文以及翻译稿: 另外解释一下为什么不直接贴在这里,因为我发现无法把它正确地编辑在这里:(贴上来就全部乱了.过几天处理好了再放回来.

后记:应CUILEI的留言要求,我把翻译稿张贴如下:

2007 7 16

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以下为 如何写报告(下)的英文以及翻译稿:
To write a quick summary:写下一个快速摘要
Read the report.
读报告
Isolate and summarize the central theme.
分析概括出主题
Read each section, isolate and summarize the main statement in each section.
Get rid of lists, repetition, detailed description. Replace with general statements. Combine into a continuous written piece as briefly as possible
读完每个部分,分离并概括出每一个部分的主要意思。删除?以及不必要的重复,用简短的文字代替冗长的描述,并将之组成尽可能简洁的句子。
Introduction This sets the scene, and should include the following:
介绍
Why the report was written/background?
为什么要写这个报告/背景介绍?
Terms of reference determines the scope or parameters of the report, and what you are trying to do. (objective, purpose, and use)
术语参考?确定报告参数范围,你想要达到怎样的(目的、目标和用途)
Method of investigation.
研究方法
Resources available.
所具备的材料资源
Sources used.
所使用的资源
Limitations.
局限性?
Structure of report.
报告结构
Main text This is the main substance of the report detailing key findings. It consists of data you have found, and what you have found out from it. It should not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations.  This is the longest section of the report, and may include the most sub-sections.
主体 这是整个报告具体阐明所有发现的实质。其中包括你所搜集的数据,以及你从何处找到这些数据的。它不应该包括观点,结论或者建议。主题是整篇报告中最长的部分,也许还包括最多的子标题下的内容。
Conclusion This should link the terms of reference (what you were trying to do) with the findings to assess the facts. Draws together the main points of the report, presents an overview, and looks at future consequences. NO NEW data should arise here. A conclusion may include recommendations if these arise from the conclusion.
结论 这个需要以你所找到的数据然后结合参考术语(你试图达到的目标)去接近事实,将报告的所有观点聚拢,表达总的观点,并且展望下未来的结果。这里不需要增加任何数据。一个结论有时还需要提供意见和建议。
Recommendations These should follow logically on from the conclusion, and be specific, measurable and achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by stating the action to be taken. Ideally recommendations should be numbered.
建议 这一部分必须有逻辑地依靠结论得出,具体,易操作并且可行。它将解释如何用建议的方法去改进目前的情况并解决当前问题。理想的建议应该不止一条。
Appendices Consists of supplementary information not required for the main body of the report.
附录由补充或者附加的信息组成,不要求在报告主体中出现。
Basic checklist for location of materials you are not sure about:
为确保报告中所有材料按部就班,以下提供一个核对一览表:
Will the reader need to know this?
读者需要了解这些吗?
YES                                                   NO
                                                    
Do they need to know it to follow the argument?      Dont include in report
他们需要通过了解这些才能明白主题吗?                 删掉
        YES                                            NO
                                                    
Put it in the main body.                            Is it referred to several times?
将它放入主体                                        被参考(提及)多次了么?                       
        YES                                            NO
                                                     
Put in main body Put in appendix
放入附录
References These should list bibliographic details of all the materials mentioned in the text, or extracts quoted. You will need to use the British Standard or Harvard method of referencing. See  Cite them Right for more information. (Shields,G.,Walton,G.Cite Them Right.3rd ed.UNN.1995.)
参考文献 这里需要罗列正文中所提到的所有提及或引用的详细书目,或者引用摘录。要求使用英国标准或者哈佛标准。如有疑问,请参见《如何正确引用》。(Shields,G.,Walton,G.如何正确引用.第三版.UNN.1995.)
Bibliography Includes bibliographic details of all material mentioned in the references, plus other material used but not referred to in the main body of the report. This is not always necessary, particularly if using the Harvard referencing system.
Glossary Useful if the report uses a lot of technical vocabulary to give definitions or acronyms.
参考书目 参考文献里所引用的所有书目,凡不是报告主体里提到的内容如有涉及书目也要加上去,不过,并不是所有的报告都要求这样,尤其当你在使用哈佛标准的时候。
Index Not always included.
索引可不写
 
Style and Structuree 风格和结构
Match the style to the reader. The key is to keep the report concise and simple.
Avoid jargon and use Plain English.
符合读者的口味。报告关键在于简单明了,要用大白话,不要使用行话。
Sentences Keep them short, no longer than 25 words. Big idea = short sentences.
句子 使用短句,句子不要超过25个字。使用短句来表达复杂的意思。
Paragraph Concentrates on one theme, the first sentence should summarize the topic of the paragraph, paragraphs should be connected with link words so that they carry the reader along.
段落 着重看主题,开门见山,为引领读者阅读,段落间要有连接词。
Tense Reports are normally written in the past tense and in the third person. i.e. It is recommended that However use I if appropriate.
检索 报告一般使用被动语态时态和第三人称。例如:(被)建议……当然,如果合适的话,使用“我”也是可行的。
Notation Identify the main components of the report for reference and indexing purposes.
注释 核对报告的作为参考以及检索的主要组成部分。
1.          Number pages
1.          页数
2.          Number sections and paragraphs if appropriate
2.          如需要,还要检查在引用第几章节以及哪个段落时有没弄错数号。
3.          Heading
3.          标题
             3.1Sub-heading
             3.1子标题
   3.2 Avoid complicating numbering further with 3.2.1 etc.
   3.2避免使用复杂的数字标注方法,比如3.2.1等等。
(This does not apply to the contents page, or summary instead these pages should be given Roman numerals, i.e. i, ii, iii, iv. The appendices should be given a letter/roman numeral, i.e. Appendix A, or Appendix I etc.)
(这些数字不用于报告的主体或者摘要 相反,所提到的这些地方需要标注罗马数字,如:i, ii, iii, iv.
Illustrations Only include these in the main body of the report if fundamental to the text, or referred to several times. Otherwise place them in the appendix (give caption, figure number and acknowledge the source).
图表 只有在对文字需要,或是被多次提及的情况下,才有必要在主体中加图表。否则,请将它放入附录。(给出说明,代号并说明出处)。
Summarize each section of the report with one or two sentences to form a short conclusion.
用一到两句话为报告的每个部分作个小结,
Writing order Main body, conclusion, recommendations, introduction, then (appendices, glossary, references, bibliography, contents/index in no particular order), summary and title page.
写作顺序主体,结论,意见和建议,简介,然后是(附录,词汇?,参考文献,书目,内容/目录 这些没有严格的顺序)摘要和标题页。
After Writing 报告完成后
Check the report for:
检查一下报告是否:
Completeness.完整
Accuracy.精确
Layout. 格式
Spelling. 拼写
Numbering of sections. 各个部分的号码
Illustrations. 表格
Check the report follows your plan, and answers the question asked.
按照你的计划检查报告,按要求回答完那些问题。
(注:以下为该文所引用的书目和文章的检索就不翻译了。最后注明一下资料来源:http://northumbria.ac.uk/
 
Useful References (British Standard Referencing)
Barker, A. The Right Report. The Industrial Society, 1993.
Bowden, J. How to Write a Report. A Step-by-Step Guide to Effective Report Writing. 2nd
ed. How To Books Ltd, 1994.
Ellis, R., Hopkins, K. How to Succeed in Written Work and Study. Collins, 1985. (chapter
12. The Report).
Forsyth, P. 30 Minutes to Write a Report. Kogan Page, 1997.
Hemingway, J. Report Writing. Briefcase Booklet. Video Arts, 1993.(see accompanying video).
Sinclair, C., McNally, J. Writing Reports in Sauders, D. (ed.) The Complete Student Handbook.
Blackwell, 1994.
Sussans, J. E. How to Write Effective Reports. 3rd ed. Gower, 1991.
Vidal Hall, J. Report Writing. The Industrial Society Press, 1992.
Wainwright, G. Report Writing. A Practical Guide to Effective Report Writing Presented in
Report Form. 2nd ed. Management Update, 1990.
Williams, K. Writing Reports. Developing Writing. The Oxford Centre For Staff Development,
1995.
 

4 thoughts on “如何写报告(下)

  1. 我觉得 你翻译的这个如何写报告听好的,对我挺受用,而且经理这几天也在让我写一篇

  2. TOcuilei:加上去了,希望对你有所帮助.以上有?的地方都是我不确认的,有时间是需要核实的,另外,这个报告的写法似乎也不太对路,这个"如何下报告的(下)"有点偏离了纯商务报告的写法.

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